Acute respiratory diseases

Acute respiratory diseasesACUTE RESPIRATORY infections (ARI, acute catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, acute respiratory infections) are widely distributed, are characterized by the General intoxication and mainly affecting the respiratory tract. Are anthroponoses airborne transmission mechanism. More sick children. Occur as sporadic cases and outbreaks. Etiology, pathogenesis. OCR can be due to the large number (over 200) of different etiological agents. These include: 1). influenza viruses of different antigenic types and variants; 2). parainfluenza viruses - 4; 3). adenoviruses - 32 type; 4). reovirus - 3 type; 5). rhinoviruses are more than 100 types; 6). coronaviruses are 4 types; 7). respiratorio syncytial virus; 8). enteroviruses 70 types; 9). herpes simplex virus; 10). Mycoplasma; 11). streptococci, staphylococci and other bacterial agents. Gate infection - various respiratory tract, where inflammatory changes occur. The symptoms for. Characterized by moderate symptoms of intoxication, the predominant lesion in the upper respiratory tract and benign course. Localization the most pronounced changes in the respiratory tract depends on the type of pathogen. For example, rhinoviral diseases are characterized by the prevalence of rhinitis, adenovirus - rhinopharyngitis, parainfluenza manifests a primary lesion of the larynx, flu-trachea, respiratory syncytial virus disease of the bronchi. Some etiologic agents, in addition to lesions of the respiratory tract, cause the occurrence of other symptoms. When adenoviral diseases can cause conjunctivitis and keratitis, with enteroviral diseases - signs epidemic myalgia, herpangina, exanthema. Duration ARD, not complicated by pneumonia ranges from 2-3 up to 5-8 days. In the presence of pneumonia, the disease may take up to 3-4 weeks. Clinical differential diagnosis of sporadic cases of acute respiratory infections is difficult, therefore, in the practical physician etiological characteristics of the disease often remains undisclosed. During epidemic outbreaks characteristic clinical manifestations suggest the etiology of the disease. Confirmation of diagnosis is increasing titers of specific antibodies in paired sera. The first serum taken before the 6th day of illness, the second - 10-14 days. The diagnosis is confirmed by the increase of credits in 4 times or more. Use RAC, rtha. Fast decryption method etiology of the disease is the detection of pathogens using immunofluorescence method. When the similarity of clinical manifestations of the disease leave behind only typespecification immunity. In this regard one and the same person can stand ARD 5-7 times during the year. This is especially observed in the groups of children. Treatment. Patients with uncomplicated acute respiratory infections treated at home. Hospitalized patients to be severe and complicated forms of the disease, as well as those of organized groups. Antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs will act on viruses, so they appoint only in the presence of microbial complications (otitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and others). During the febrile period, the patient must stay in bed. Designate a complex of vitamins (vitamin C 300 mg, thiamine and Riboflavin to 6 mg, Niacin 20 mg/day). To reduce cough use steam inhalation, expectorants. When expressed rhinitis nose buried 2% solution of ephedrine, sanorin, etc. If necessary, designate other symptoms. You can use the premise, which is a complex symptomatic drugs (see Influenza). In severe forms of the disease can be entered (in the first days of the disease) normal human immunoglobulin (gamma globulin) at 6 ml/m In the development of the syndrome of false croup in children it is recommended that the moisture of the air in the room to hang wet towels, put the dishes with hot water), application of warm or hot compresses on the neck, the purpose of chloral hydrate in the enema in the age doses; appointed as phenobarbital. The forecast is favorable. Average duration of disability 5-7 days.


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