Cytomegalovirus infection

Cytomegalovirus infectionThe human cytomegalovirus (РЎytomegalovirus hominis, the Human Herpes Virus type 5). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was opened scientist Margaret Gladys Smith in 1956. This virus is most common among people representative of the group of herpes viruses. External CMV is similar to the herpes simplex viruses that cause genital herpes, and herpes of the lips. The majority of adults and a significant number of children infected with this virus. Statistics show that half of the residents of the village and up to 90% of the urban population aged 40 years are infected with cytomegalovirus. After infection with the virus for many years may be asymptomatic in the body without causing any diseases. Most people with normal immunity to the virus until the end of life doesn't manifest itself. The greatest risk of CMV infection is for people with immunodeficiencies caused by radiation or chemotherapy for cancer, when taken in substantial doses of corticosteroids , immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplantation, HIV infection, and if CMV infected newborn. In this group of people cytomegalovirus can cause pneumonia, brain liver, heart and retina. How does the infection: The virus enters from the external environment with the saliva of a patient interlocutor, with the male seed, secretions from the vagina and cervix, urine, blood, lacrimal fluid, and breast milk (the most common worldwide transfer method). Transmission path: 1. Contact and sex: - Contact with newborns, including daily care (children infected at birth, within the first 5 years of life are separated from the body of the virus); - Sexual way (early sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, homosexual relationships, previous sexually transmitted diseases) 2. Nosocomial infection - For the transplantation of organs from persons infected with CMV. - Transfusion of blood and blood products from a person infected with CMV. (In the Russian Federation products from the blood and whole blood for the presence of CMV are not checked). The virus gets into the body and into the blood. But not dozing guard our health - the immune system, it kills the virus in the blood, "forcing" him in the glands that produce saliva /salivary gland and kidney tissue where the virus goes into a dormant state for many weeks, months, or years is "asleep". "Sleep" virus, the immune system doesn't recognize. Disorders of the immune system occurs reactivation of cytomegalovirus destroys the structure of the human cells, causing the formation of clumps of nuclei, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes - known You in high school biology course. After such a destruction of the cell, as a sinking ship, filled podsalaska fluid and strong swells. For this specific type, the cell infected with CMV, called "owl's eye", but the disease by cytomegalovirus, which translated from Greek into Russian means /cyto - cell; mega - large size/. The symptom of "Owl eyes" was opened in 1881 by Robertom (Ribbert). In 1921 Goodpastor (Goodpasture) and Tolbert (Talbert) suggested that cytomegalovirus probably has a viral nature. In 1950, Smith (Smith) and Vellios (Vellios) proved that the infection can affect the uterus. In 1956, at the same time Smith and Rowe have been able to isolate CMV from urine of a child, a patient with cytomegalovirus. In 1957, the research group Weller (Weller) have identified and begun the study of cytomegalovirus. In 1960 Weller entered name CYTOMEGALOVIRUS. The disease: The disease can appear in three forms: 1. The symptoms of mononucleosis; 2. Multiple lesions of internal organs in people with impaired immunity; 3. Inflammation of the urogenital system and intrauterine infection and the defeat of the fetus. In the first case, patients complain of weakness, General malaise, fatigue, headaches, runny nose, inflammation and enlargement of the salivary glands, with abundant Department of saliva and a whitish deposits on gums and tongue. Within 2-3 weeks these symptoms are independently and normally do not require treatment. In generalized form of the disease (? 2) there is inflammation of the liver tissue, adrenal glands, spleen, pancreas, kidney, esophagus. She is accompanied by frequent groundless pneumonia, low number of platelets in the blood, damage to the blood vessels of the eye, intestine, brain and peripheral nerves. The increase in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands, inflammation of the joints, skin rashes. According to statistics of the world Health Organization generalized form cytomegaly is the largest cause of death in the world after influenza and acute respiratory infections. Cytomegalovirus infection is a major cause of complications and death in patients with organ transplants and patients with AIDS. Mortality from CMV pneumonia in HIV-infected individuals in the United States up to 90%. 7-20% of patients with AIDS will permanently lose vision due to cytomegalovirus retinitis (retinal lesions), which develops in ~ 70% of those infected. The third variant of the disease involves the development of women inflammation of the uterine cervix /cervicitis/, the inner layer of the uterus /endometriosis/, vagina and ovaries. The disease is acute. Women complain of pain and whitish - bluish discharge from the genital tract. Men cytomegalovirus infection occurs usually asymptomatic. In some cases there are unpleasant sensations during urination. The most dangerous disease if it is FIRST time IN my LIFE occurs in 1-3% of cases during pregnancy. Infection of the fetus during early pregnancy (before 12 weeks of pregnancy) leads to congenital malformations: the unborn child may not develop the brain: anacelia or happen dropsy of the brain - hydrocephalus. The baby may suffer mental retardation, deafness, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, muscular weakness. When CMV infection of a fetus during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy probable miscarriage.


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